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About Bihar - Information, Facts, History

Bihar has been described in mythology, in history. Doesn't matter that its alternate name such as Magadh has been used more in ancient. The land of Bihar gave two major religions, Jainism and Buddhism, to the world. Great kings like Chandragupta Maurya, Emperor Ashoka have ruled ancient Bihar whose capital was Patliputra. This Pataliputra is known as Patna in the modern era, which is still the capital of Bihar.
Litti Chokha bihar

Modern Bihar

Bihar, a state with a comprehensive impact on Politics in India. It is in eastern side of India and bordered with Nepal in North. West Bengal and Uttar Pradesh are in northeast and west side of Bihar respectively. It is 13th largest state in India. In year 2000, Bihar was divided into 2 parts and isolated from its southern part which is named as Jharkhand. Today's modern Patna is the capital of Bihar.

Let's know some count from Bihar. There are total -

  • 38 Districts in Bihar
  • 9 Divisions in Bihar
  • 101 Sub-Divisions in Bihar
  • 40 Loksabha Seats
  • 243 Vidhan Sabha Seats (Bihar Legislative Assembly) in Bihar
  • 16 Rajya Sabha Seats in Bihar

History of Bihar

Let's now peep into the pages of the history of Bihar. The history of Bihar is very interesting as well as being old. The name Bihar is derived from the Sanskrit word 'Vihar'. The ancient name of Bihar is Magadha, and capital was Rajgir in ancient times. Bihar had an important role in history of India. In ancient time, Bihar was centre of culture, power and education. Bihar has 3 regions with their own identity and culture. These 3 regions are - Magadh, Mithila and Bhojpur. Magadha was one of the powerful kingdoms in Buddhist times. It was located in southern Bihar which later became the most powerful Mahajanapada of North India. It became a world center of glorious religiosity. Modern Patna and Gaya was included in Magadh Kingdom.

Bihar is known as birthplace of two popular religions Jainism, Budhism. Bihar was a significant centre during vedic period. Modern Bihar is also known as Land of IAS officers because it has produced a number of IAS officers than any other states in India.

Nalanda University: 95 KM away from capital city Patna, Nalanda University is said to be the oldest university not only in India but also in the world. This University was known for its huge library where millions of books were kept.

Bihar, which was the strongest kingdom in ancient time, is lost today somewhere in history.

Top 5 Facts about Bihar

  • Oldest University of the world - Nalanda University
  • Origin of Jainism and Budhism religion
  • Tenth and last Guru of Sikhism, Guru Gobind Singh was born in Patna, Bihar
  • Gautam Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
  • India's first President Dr. Rajendra Prasad was born in Zeradai (Siwan District), Bihar

Important information about Bihar

Area 94,163 KM2
Population 8,29,98,509 (as per census 2011)
Postal Code 800XXX , 855XXX
Vehicle Code BR
Telephone STD Code 0612
Capital Patna
Official Website
Language Bhojpuri, Maithili, Hindi
Major Rivers Ganga, Kosi, Gandak, Son
Indsutry Cotton spinning mills, Sugar mills, Jute mills
Agriculture Rice, Wheat, Oilseed, Onions, Sugarcane, Potato
State Animal Ox
State Bird Sparrow
State Flower Marigold

9 Divisions in Bihar










Major Cities of Bihar

  • Patna
  • Gaya
  • Bhagalpur
  • Muzaffarpur
  • Biharsarif
  • Darbhanga
  • Purnia
  • Munger
  • Arrah
  • Katihar
  • Chahapra
  • Sasaram
  • Motihari (East Champaran)
  • Bettiah (West Champaran)

Culture of Bihar

  • Main Festivals - Chhath Puja, Holi, Diwlai, Teej
  • Music of Bihar - Sohar, Ropnigeet, Katnigeet
  • Paintings of Bihar - Madhubani Paintings

Famous Historical Personalities of Bihar

  • Chanakya
  • Aryabhatt
  • King Ashoka
  • Guru Gobind Singh
  • Jai Prakash Narayan
  • Ramdhari Singh Dinkar


Bihar is divided by holy river Ganga into 2 parts. One is called North Bihar and another named as South Bihar.

North Bihar

Land of North Bihar is alluvial region and it is around 250 ft. above sea level. Gandak, Kosi (Koshi), Baghmati, Mahananda are the main rivers which flow down in northern Bihar. Kosi or Koshi river causes lots of damage to northern Bihar because of destructive flood nature and the reason this river is known as "Sorrow of Bihar" (बिहार का शोक)

Districts in North Bihar:

Below are the list of District in North Bihar -

South Bihar

South Bihar land is more versatile than northern Bihar.

Districts in South Bihar:

Below are the list of District in South Bihar -

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